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Late Republican Roman

Late Republican Rome

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Historical Overview Section

The reforms of Marius professionalised the Roman Army and got rid of the old distinctions between Triarii, Principes and Hastati, creating a modern all-sword & pilum equipped professional force.

The foremost of the Marian reforms was the inclusion of Roman landless mass, the capite censi, men who had no property to be assessed in the census. Instead they were "counted by the head". These men were now among the ranks of those who could be recruited even though they owned no significant property. Because these poor citizens could not afford to purchase their own weapons and armor, Marius arranged for the state to supply them with arms. He thus offered the disenfranchised masses permanent employment for pay as professional soldiers, and the opportunity to gain spoils on campaign. With little hope of gaining status in other ways, the masses flocked to join Marius in his new army. These professional soldiers were recruited for an enlistment term of 16 years, later to rise to 20 years full service and 5 years as evocati under the reforms of Augustus.

With this permanent standing army Marius was able to standardize training and equipment throughout the Roman Legions. Drilling and training took place year round, not just when they were urgently needed. Marius organized the legions as follows. The total number of men in a full strength legion was about 6,000, of whom 5,200 were actual soldiers. The rest were classified as noncombatants. The internal organization of a legion consisted of 10 cohorts of 6 centuries each. The century consisted of 80 men. However the first cohort was irregular and consisted of 5 double strength centuries (containing 160 men). The century was divided again into 8 man units that tented and messed together in camp, this was called a contubernia. The century fought as a unit, marched as a unit and camped as a unit. The century carried with it all the arms and accoutrements required to feed and maintain it as a fighting unit. This reduced the size of the baggage train required as support and made the army much more mobile. Between 2 and 6 legions clubbed together constituted an army. The legions soon were in peak physical condition and discipline, unmatched in the ancient world. This was the second important reform that improved the Roman military.

The third reform that Marius was able to introduce was legislation that offered retirement benefits in the form of land grants. Members of the head count who had completed their term of service would be given a pension by their general and a plot of land in the conquered region on which to retire. Officers and commanders were given monetary rewards that were 10-25 times greater than that of a common foot soldier.

Finally, Marius granted citizens of the Italian allies (Etruria, Picenum etc.) full Roman citizenship if they fought for Rome and completed a period of service in the Roman army.

Using the army in FoG

  • Like the earlier Romans, the strength of this army lies in its legions. Armoured, superior and with both impact foot and skilled swordsmen bonuses there is little in period to trouble them save a well co-ordinated pike charge or maybe lots of cataphracts. This strength can sometims become a disadvantage however, as you may find your legions simply too tough for your opponent to take on at all - which is a rationale for downgrading some to the less intimidating "average swordsmen" status, as its better to have your best troops fighting than watching.
  • Again like the earlier armies, the temptation to fritter away points on ancilliary troops is even stronger in this army, although this time there are some worth having - especially the 2 Elephants which give an extra dimension to the range of troops the legions can take on. Other highlights to consider investing in are the early period "protected" velites, who through being materially better than pretty much any other light foot in this period can give the Romans a serious advantage in the pre-game light foot skirmishing phase. However to seriously outnumber enemy skirmishers you may want to consider adding a Numidian ally, giving you lots more small units of javelin skirmishers as well as enough LH to do some real threatening.
  • With high priced legions the army is unlikely to be able to fill the table at 800 points in 15mm, and one risk to look out for is a half-hearted aggressive strategy which simply draws the legions out of formation and creats gaps and flanks for the enemy. Aim high or low on aggression rolls to either secure the terrain you need to sit defensively or move first decisively and put your powerful legions in a position where the enemy has to fight them.
  • The army lacks enough decent medium foot to contest terrain, and in any case holding terrain (and trying to exploit flanks as a result) will not help you kill any enemy battle groups (and so contribute to you winning the game) as your legions are going to need to advance past terrain to get to grips with the enemy.
  • The compulsary cavalry unit is unlikley to be able to achieve much, and so a protected/superior unit which can provide rear support to superior legions may well prove a better investment than an armoured/average or armoured/superior unit who gets tempted out into an almost inevitably uneven fight against better enemy mounted forces.
  • 4 TCs - or less - seems the default choice with the LRRs - the legions maneuver well anyway, they are unlikley to need to do anything too tricky and there are few armies with enough shooting capable of denting the legionary armour in this period so the extra + for the IC is rarely worth it. TCs can afford to be risked in combat and their presence can make a large legionary unit an extremely tough nut to crack indeed.
  • So, in summary, max out on the legions and lead with them, dont try and do anything else other than support them as its probably a waste of points better spent on the boys in red.

Design Notes from FoG Author, Simon Hall

  • This army is going to win its battles with legionaries in true old fashioned Roman style.
  • It therefore needs a decent quantity of these, and realistically everything else is peripheral.
  • As long as you take lots of legionaries I feel the Elite ones are an unnecessary extravagance (but very useful if you go for fewer legionaries and a wide mix of troops).
  • The army needs to be able to block the table a bit so I have taken 2 Light Cav BGs and a full size Archer LF BG to do some of this, these need careful use to make sure you don’t lose any of them.
  • It may seem tempting to take Cretans, Armoured Cavalry, MF Spanish or all sorts of things from the options list but I feel that if you do you get tempted into fighting the wrong type of battle.
  • In practice I use the cavalry mainly as rear support for legionaries and flank protection so Protected is good enough. There are 2 FFs as well to get in the enemy’s way.
  • The legionaries have 2 BGs of 8 for maximum clout, and 2 TCs to go with these if necessary. There are then 5 BGs of 4 bases each that are very agile and can work flanks well by “turning and moving”, being drilled.
  • PBI of 2 is a nice balance as this army can deal with winning or losing this roll – winning allows some terrain choices to close the table down, losing gives first move which can be pretty threatening with 32 bases of legionaries to play with. So a 2 catches out some armies that depend on winning or losing for their plans.
  • Note the army is set up that so that some legionaries or the camp have to die whatever – 11BGs and 7 of these are Legionaries (come and get it).

Simon's Deployment and Tactical Advice

  • Make sure you force the fight with your legionaries and avoid losing any support troops– do not risk fights with these as they are just to take up space and buy time for the boys to do the business!
  • Be bold – the sooner your legionaries pressure core enemy troops the more you will give them a fright and have time to crush them. Use the TFs to give you options to manoeuvre around
  • Here’s my standard deployment:
  • use LH on wings, LF to consume some space.
  • 2 legionaries BLs with a Cav providing rear support to 2 BGs on the most exposed side.
  • 1 legionary BG behind FF dead centre.
  • Most of the rest of the army in a block centrally ready to manoeuvre and deploy around the FFs
  • The cav spin off to protect flanks if necessary. The LF and LH must retire back sensibly to the protection of the legionaries – if you do this you will make it hard for the enemy to break your army.


Allied Contingents

  • Galatian : Date restrictions None Book: Immortal Fire Page: 51 - Don’t dismiss this - the Galatians can be "cheap" protected imitation legions from 62 BC, and you also get up to 8 armoured cavalry
  • Dacian - Dacian or Carpi : Date restrictions None Book: Legions Triumphant Page: 35 - The MF may sound good for any woods you may come across, but your legions are probably better in bad terrain than these chaps anyway. Are MF protected impact foot really as good as more legions? Interesting for flavour, but doesn't really cut it in reality
  • Jewish, Later : Date restrictions None Book: Legions Triumphant Page: 61 - Imitation legions, LH and LF makes a nice addition, but nothing game-changing
  • Bithynian : Date restrictions None Book: Rise of Rome Page: 15 - 4 cavalry is tempting to add, but why not just have more legions as they are the best troops in almost all situations. And 8 MF with Lt Sp only - give me a break!
  • Numidian - Numidian or Early Moorish : Date restrictions None Book: Rise of Rome Page: 38 - The LH arent that good, but the LF being allowed to be in BGs of 4 makes this ally quite compelling as at 16 points per unit they can boost your unit count and replace your own LF in the battle line
  • Armenian, Early : Date restrictions None Book: Rise of Rome Page: 53 - 6 cataphracts and 12 Lh is a good addition, but not cheap
  • Arab, Early : Date restrictions None Book: Rise of Rome Page: 60 - Well, it has no minima, so you can choose between uninspiring LH and Cv, Poor Bw armed camelry, and some very average Lt Sp/Sw MF. Hoorah!

UK Tournament Results for this army

2 / 10 Late Republican Roman BHGS Challenge 2008 25mm (open)
5 / 16 Late Republican Roman Godendag 2008 Doubles (RoR)
6 / 13 Late Republican Roman IWF 2008 15mm (open)
7 / 16 Late Republican Roman Godendag 2008 Doubles (RoR)
8 / 13 Late Republican Roman IWF 2008 15mm (open)
8 / 10 Late Republican Roman Luncarty Doubles 2008 (RoR)
9 / 10 Late Republican Roman Luncarty Doubles 2008 (RoR)
12 / 16 Late Republican Roman Godendag 2008 Doubles (RoR)
12 / 14 Late Republican Roman Roll Call 2008 25mm (open)
14 / 17 Late Republican Roman Warfare 2008 25mm (RoR, LT, IF)
15 / 17 Late Republican Roman Warfare 2008 25mm (RoR, LT, IF)
16 / 20 Late Republican Roman Warfare 2008 15mm (RoR, IF, LT)
20 / 27 Late Republican Roman Britcon 2007 15mm (open)
21 / 62 Late Republican Roman Britcon 2008 15mm (open)
30 / 41 Late Republican Roman BHGS Challenge 2008 (open)
16 / 16 Late Republican Godendag 2008 Doubles (RoR)
28 / 41 Later Republican Roman BHGS Challenge 2008 (open)
36 / 41 Later Republican Roman BHGS Challenge 2008 (open)
40 / 41 Later Republican Roman BHGS Challenge 2008 (open)
3 / 12 RR02 Late Republican Roman Northern League R2 2008 (open)

User-contributed links about this army:




15mm Manufacturers supplying figures for this army

Image Image Image Image

You can see some of the figures in the Ancients Photo Gallery also on this site

Army Lists

Sample army lists for this army
Used by the USA Team at ITC in Lisbon, 2012

  • 8 Protected J/LS LF
  • 4 Superior Bw Psiloi
  • 8 Average LF Bow
  • 4 Legions, full fat Sk/Sw, Armour, Superior HF
  • 4 Legions, full fat Sk/Sw, Armour, Superior HF
  • 4 Legions, full fat Sk/Sw, Armour, Superior HF
  • 4 Legions, full fat with extra cream, sprinkles on top and a Cadburys 99 Flake, Sk/Sw, Armour, Elite HF
  • 4 Legions, full fat with extra cream, sprinkles on top and a Cadburys 99 Flake, Sk/Sw, Armour, Elite HF
  • 4 Legions, full fat with extra cream, sprinkles on top and a Cadburys 99 Flake, Sk/Sw, Armour, Elite HF
  • 4 Legions, full fat with extra cream, sprinkles on top and a Cadburys 99 Flake, Sk/Sw, Armour, Elite HF
  • 4 LH, of some sort, probably Numidians
  • 4 Armoured Superior Cavalry with L/S/Sw
  • 4 TC's


Used by Team Portugal at the ITC 2012
Cassius Version

  • 8 LF, Bw, Average
  • 6 Average Slingers
  • 4 LH, Bw/Sw
  • 4 LH, Bw/Sw
  • 4 LH, J/LS
  • 4 LH, J/LS
  • 4 LH, Bw
  • 8 MF, Protected, Hvy Weapon (Thracians?)
  • 4 Armoured Undrilled Ls/Sw Cavalry Superior
  • 4 Armouored Undrilled Ls/Sw Cavalry Superior
  • 4 Full fat Armoured Superior Legions with Skilled Sword
  • 4 Full fat Armoured Superior Legions with Skilled Sword
  • 4 Full fat Armoured Superior Legions with Skilled Sword
  • 4 Full fat Armoured Superior Legions with Skilled Sword

IC and 3 TC's

Used at Reading / Warfare 2009

  • 1 Slingers LF unprotected Average undrilled sling - - - 8
  • 2 legions HF Armoured Average Drilled - Impact foot Swordsmen - 4
  • 3 legions HF Armoured Average Drilled - Impact foot Swordsmen - 4
  • 4 legions HF Armoured Average Drilled - Impact foot Swordsmen - 4
  • 5 Theurophoroi HF Protected Average Drilled - Offensive spearmen - - 8
  • 6 legions HF Armoured superior Drilled - Impact foot Skilled swordsmen - 4
  • 7 legions HF Armoured superior Drilled - Impact foot Skilled swordsmen - 4
  • 8 legions HF Armoured superior Drilled - Impact foot Skilled swordsmen - 4
  • 9 Cavalry Cv Protected Average Undrilled - Light spear Swordsmen - 4
  • 10 legions HF Armoured Average Drilled - Impact foot Swordsmen - 4
  • 11 legions HF Armoured superior Drilled - Impact foot Skilled swordsmen - 4
  • 12 legions HF Armoured superior Drilled - Impact foot Skilled swordsmen - 6
  • 13 Gladiators MF Protected superior undrilled - - Skilled swordsmen - 4
  • CinC TC - - - - - - CinC 1
  • TC TC - - - - - - - 3
  • Camp CAMP - - - - - - - 1

This list can just about fill the entire table if the 4-base legions are deployed 3+1 deep. The Gladiators and Theurophoroi were used because I'd got some new figures and wanted to use them, rather than because they were part of some tactical masterplan. It struggled most against armies with lots of LH & LF units as it simply wasn't able to catch them, and so even when handing out a pasting to the enemies' main battle line troops it still failed to break their army.

800AP LRR as used at Warfare 2009

  • 6 MF Drilled Off Sp, Protected, Average (Greeks)
  • 6 MF Drilled Off Sp, Protected, Average (Greeks)
  • 4 Armoured Undrilled Superior Cavalry, Lt Sp/Sw
  • 4 Superior Legions
  • 4 Superior Legions
  • 4 Superior Legions
  • 4 Superior Legions
  • 4 Superior Legions
  • 4 Superior Legions
  • 6 JLS armed LF
  • 2 Elephants
  • 4 Superior Legions
  • 2 x TC
  • 1 X IC


900 AO list as used at the Madaxeman Invitational, incorporating the Starter Army in full

  • . General TC - - - - - - - 1
  • . General TC - - - - - - - 1
  • . General TC - - - - - - - 1
  • . Caesar IC - - - - - - CinC 1
  • 1 Illyrians MF Protected Average Undrilled - Offensive spearmen - - 8
  • 2 Slingers LF Unprotected Average Drilled Sling - - - 6
  • 3 Numidians LH Unprotected Average Undrilled Javelins Light spear - - 4
  • 4 Numidians LH Unprotected Average Undrilled Javelins Light spear - - 4
  • 5 Legion HF Armoured Superior Drilled - Impact foot Skilled swordmen - 4
  • 6 Legion HF Armoured Superior Drilled - Impact foot Skilled swordmen - 4
  • 7 Legion HF Armoured Superior Drilled - Impact foot Skilled swordmen - 4
  • 8 Legion HF Armoured Superior Drilled - Impact foot Skilled swordmen - 4
  • 9 Legion HF Armoured Superior Drilled - Impact foot Skilled swordmen - 4
  • 10 Legion HF Armoured Average Drilled - Impact foot Swordmen - 8
  • 11 Legion HF Armoured Average Drilled - Impact foot Swordmen - 8
  • 12 Legion HF Armoured Average Drilled - Impact foot Swordmen - 4
  • 13 Cavalry Cv Armoured Superior Undrilled - Light spear Swordmen - 4
  • Legionary Camp CAMP - - - - - - - 1

800 AP list

  • 1 slingers LF unprotected Average Undrilled sling - - - 6
  • 2 Light Foot LF Unprotected Average Undrilled Bow - - - 6
  • 3 Legions HF Armoured Average Drilled - Impact Foot Swordmen - 6
  • 4 Legions HF Armoured Superior Drilled - Impact Foot Skilled swordmen - 8
  • 5 Legions HF Armoured Superior Drilled - Impact Foot Skilled swordmen - 8
  • 6 Ligurians MF Protected Average Undrilled - Light spear - 6
  • 7 Light Horse LH unprotected Average Undrilled Bow - - - 4
  • 8 Velites LF Protected Average Drilled Javelins Light spear - - 6
  • 9 Light Horse LH unprotected Average Undrilled Javelins Light spear - - 4
  • 10 Cavalry Cv Armoured Average Undrilled - Light spear Swordmen - 4
  • 11 Light Horse LH unprotected Average Undrilled Javelins Light spear - - 4
  • 12 Dacians - allied MF Protected Average Undrilled - Impact Foot Swordmen - 8
  • 13 Dacians - allied MF Protected Average Undrilled - Impact Foot Swordmen - 8
  • Subbie TC - - - - - - - 1
  • General TC - - - - - - CinC 1
  • Subbie TC - - - - - - - 1
  • Subbie ally dacian TC - - - - - - Ally general 1
  • Camp FORTIFIED CAMP - - - - - - - 1


The above army is one I used at Warfare in November 2008. The theory was that in a restricted period (RoR/IF/LT books only) it would be able to achieve the following:

The legions were mostly Skilled Swordsmen in case I fought other Roman armies (or barbarians) - however points restraints and a wish to make them "not too hard to take on" meant I fitted in 6 downgraded legionaries. They were fielded in big units so I could attach generals to them and make large numbers of bases virtually invincible (or so I hoped). I had only TCs as I didn't expect to suffer from much shooting in this period. The 3 units of LH, combined with the irregular deployment order were meant to combine with my cavalry unit to drive off and overpower enemy bow armed LH. Likewise the 3 units of skirmishers, with the late-deployed protected velites were there to out-match the enemy skirmishers, and hopefully the result would be that I would pick up some "cheap" units by mugging unprepared enemy skirmishers. Finally the Dacian ally was there to provide an unexpectedly large rough terrain force capable of outmatching the typical classical era rough terrain force of 2 x 6 thracian types - and with an ally general permamently attached, and the Ligurians for rear support as well, the Dacians should be capable of doing some serious - and again unexpected - damage in rough terrain.

List designed by Simon Hall in line with his design notes

  • FC CinC
  • TC
  • TC
  • Fortified Camp
  • 2 Fortifications
  • 4 Numidians
  • 4 Numidians
  • 8 average LF Bw
  • 4 Superior Legions
  • 4 Superior Legions
  • 4 Superior Legions
  • 4 Superior Legions
  • 4 Superior Legions
  • 8 Superior Legions
  • 8 Superior Legions
  • 4 Superior Undrilled Protected Cv


Late Republican Army - 800 ap

  • 6 Legionaries Heavy foot Armoured Superior Drilled - Impact foot, skilled swordsmen
  • 6 Legionaries Heavy foot Armoured Superior Drilled - Impact foot, skilled swordsmen
  • 6 Legionaries Heavy foot Armoured Superior Drilled - Impact foot, skilled swordsmen
  • 6 Legionaries Heavy foot Armoured Superior Drilled - Impact foot, skilled swordsmen
  • 4 Legionaries Heavy foot Armoured Superior Drilled - Impact foot, skilled swordsmen
  • 6 Velites Light foot Unprotected Average Undrilled Javelins Light spear
  • 6 Velites Light foot Unprotected Average Undrilled Javelins Light spear
  • 6 Light cavalry Light horse Unprotected Average Undrilled Javelins Light spear
  • 4 Heavy cavalry Cavalry Armoured Average Undrilled - Light spear, swordsmen
  • 8 Thracian foot Medium foot Protected Average Undrilled - Heavy weapon
  • 1 x FC, 2 x TC

A textbook Roman army - although I always wonder if 6 is an odd number for legions, as you don't get the benefit of tactical flexibility that having 4's would do, and you don't get to maximise the benefits of using generals to improve the quality of big units that you do with 8's

Republican Roman (3 generals, 1000 AP)

  • 6 Superior Drilled Armoured Impact Foot Skilled Swordsmen Legions
  • 6 Superior Drilled Armoured Impact Foot Skilled Swordsmen Legions
  • 6 Superior Drilled Armoured Impact Foot Skilled Swordsmen Legions
  • 4 Superior Armoured Undrilled JLS Sword Cavalry Roman Cavalry
  • 4 Undrilled Unprotected Light Horse JLS Average Spanish ?
  • 6 Protected Light Infantry JLS Average Velites
  • 6 Undrilled Protected Average Medium Foot w/ Hvy Weapon Thracians
  • 6 Undrilled Protected Average Medium Foot w/ Hvy Weapon Thracians
  • 6 Protected Light Infantry JLS Average Velites
  • 4 Undrilled Unprotected Light Horse JLS Average Generic LH
  • 4 Undrilled Armoured Superior Cavalry JLS Swordsman Gallic or Spanish?
  • 4 undrilled unprotected Light Infantry Bow, Superior Generic LF
  • 6 Superior Drilled Armoured Impact Foot Skilled Swordsmen Legions
  • 6 Superior Drilled Armoured Impact Foot Skilled Swordsmen Legions
  • 6 Superior Drilled Armoured Impact Foot Skilled Swordsmen Legions

(Used here at Usk 2008)

1000 AP Army - with Elephants
3 Generals
2 Elephants
6 Li, Sling, Average Unprotected Generic Slingers
6 Li, JLS, Average Unprotected Generic Javelinmen
6 Medium Infantry Protected Average Swordsmen Impact Foot Spanish
6 Cavalry, Average Armoured Swordsmen JLS Drilled Roman Cavalry
2 Heavy Artillery Artillery
4 Elite Drilled Armoured Impact Foot Skilled Swordsmen Legions
4 Elite Drilled Armoured Impact Foot Skilled Swordsmen Legions
4 Elite Drilled Armoured Impact Foot Skilled Swordsmen Legions
4 Undrilled Unprotected Light Horse JLS Average Spanish ?
4 Superior Drilled Armoured Impact Foot Skilled Swordsmen Legions
4 Superior Drilled Armoured Impact Foot Skilled Swordsmen Legions
4 Superior Drilled Armoured Impact Foot Skilled Swordsmen Legions
6 Medium Infantry Protected Average JLS undrilled Ligurians?
4 Superior Drilled Armoured Impact Foot Skilled Swordsmen Legions
4 Superior Drilled Armoured Impact Foot Skilled Swordsmen Legions
4 Superior Drilled Armoured Impact Foot Skilled Swordsmen Legions
as used here at Usk in 2008

800 AP army using elephants and Gladiators

  • 1 legions HF Armoured superior Drilled - Impact foot Skilled swordsmen - 4
  • 2 legions HF Armoured superior Drilled - Impact foot Skilled swordsmen - 4
  • 3 legions HF Armoured Average Drilled - Impact foot Swordsmen - 4
  • 4 legions HF Armoured Average Drilled - Impact foot Swordsmen - 4
  • 5 legions HF Armoured Average Drilled - Impact foot Swordsmen - 4
  • 6 legions HF Armoured Average Drilled - Impact foot Swordsmen - 4
  • 7 legions HF Armoured Average Drilled - Impact foot Swordsmen - 4
  • 8 legions HF Armoured Average Drilled - Impact foot Swordsmen - 4
  • 9 legions HF Armoured Average Drilled - Impact foot Swordsmen - 4
  • 10 legions HF Armoured Average Drilled - Impact foot Swordsmen - 4
  • 11 Gladiators MF Protected superior undrilled - - Skilled swordsmen - 4
  • 12 Cavalry Cv Protected Average Drilled - Light spear Swordsmen - 4
  • 13 Theurophoroi HF Protected Average Drilled - Offensive spearmen - - 6
  • 14 Velites lf unprotected Average undrilled javelins Light spear - - 6
  • 15 elephants el - - - - - - - 2
  • fortifications - - - - - - - Fortification 2
  • CinC TC - - - - - - CinC 1
  • TC TC - - - - - - - 3
  • Camp CAMP - - - - - - - 1



Remember to leave a line before you copy the above section as a template for your own list

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