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Tulunid and Iqshidid Egyptian

Historical Overview Section

The Tulunids (Arabic: الطولونيون‎‎, Turkish: Tulunoğulları) were a dynasty of Turkic origin and were the first independent dynasty to rule Islamic Egypt, as well as much of Syria. They remained independent from 868, when they broke away from the central authority of the Abbasid dynasty that ruled the Islamic Caliphate, until 905, when the Abbasids restored the Tulunid domains to their control.

In the late 9th century, internal conflict amongst the Abbasids meant that control of the outlying areas of the empire was increasingly tenuous, and in 868 the Turkic officer Ahmad ibn Tulun established himself as an independent governor of Egypt. He subsequently achieved nominal autonomy from the central Abbasid government. During his reign (868–884) and those of his successors, the Tulunid domains were expanded to include Jordan Rift Valley, as well as Hijaz, Cyprus and Crete. Ahmad was succeeded by his son Khumarawayh, whose military and diplomatic achievements made him a major player in the Middle Eastern political stage. The Abbasids affirmed their recognition of the Tulunids as legitimate rulers, and the dynasty's status as vassals to the caliphate. After Khumarawayh's death, his successor emirs were ineffectual rulers, allowing their Turkic and black slave-soldiers to run the affairs of the state. In 905, the Tulunids were unable to resist an invasion by the Abbasid troops, who restored direct caliphal rule in Syria and Egypt.

A list of military engagements in which the Tulunid army constituted a significant party is as follows:

  • In 877, the Tulunid troops, after displaying their strength, forced the Abbasid army under Mūsā ibn Bug̲h̲ā to abandon his plan to depose Ahmad ibn Tulun.
  • In 878, the Tulunids, under the pretext of a jihad to defend the frontier districts (Thughur) against the Byzantines, occupied Syria. This campaign was ended prematurely, as Ibn Tulun had to return to Egypt.
  • In 885, the Tulunid army led by Khumarawayh met the invading Abbasids at the Battle of the Mills (al-Ṭawāḥīn) in southern Palestine. The Abbasids, led by Aḥmad ibn al-Muwaffaḳ (the future Caliph al-Mu'tadid), had invaded Syria, and the governor of Damascus had defected to the enemy. After both Ahmad and Khumarawayh fled the battlefield, the Ṭūlūnid general Saʿd al-Aysar secured victory.
  • From 885-886, the Tulunid forces, led by Khumarawayh, defeated Ibn Kundād̲j, though the latter had superior numbers. A domino effect followed, as the Jazira, Cilicia and regions as far east as Harran submitted to the Tulunid army. Peace treaties with the Tulunids put an end to the military campaigns.

From 896 to 905, after the emirate's demise the Tulunids were unable to stop the Abbasids from taking their capital al-Qata'i

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Army Lists

Sample army lists for this army
300 points
Competent
Qty Troop description Troop type Quality
4 Turkish Ghulam Heavy cavalry bow Elite
3 Bedouin Light cavalry javelin ------
1 Scouts on Camels Light camelry bow ------
1 Turkish Ghulam Heavy cavalry bow ------
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Competent
Qty Troop description Troop type Quality
4 Turkish Ghulam Heavy cavalry bow Elite
3 Bedouin Light cavalry javelin ------
1 Turkish Ghulam Heavy cavalry bow ------
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Ally Competent Unreliable
Qty Troop description Troop type Quality Cost
4 Sudanese Abid ½ Medium spearmen ½ Bowmen ------ 9
1 SudaneseGuardsmen Medium swordsmen impact Elite 10
3 Light Infantry Bow Light infantry bow ---- 4
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Ally Competent
Qty Troop description Troop type Quality
4 Sudanese Abid ½ Medium spearmen ½ Bowmen ------
1 SudaneseGuardsmen Medium swordsmen impact Elite
3 Light Infantry Bow Light infantry bow ----


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