The Jin (or Jurchen) Dynasty was founded in what would become northern Manchuria by the Jurchen tribal chieftan WÃ¡nyÃ¡n Ä€gÇ”dÇŽ in 1115. In 1125, it successfully annihilated the Khitan Liao Dynasty which had held sway over northern China, including Manchuria and part of the Mongol region for several centuries. Also at this time, the Jin made overtures to the Koryeo Korean Kingdom, which Emperor Yejong refused. On January 9, 1127, Jin forces ransacked Kaifeng, capital of the Northern Song Chinese Dynasty, capturing both Emperor Qinzong, and his father, Emperor Huizong, who had abdicated in panic in the face of Jin forces. Following the fall of Kaifeng, Song Chinese forces under the leadership of the succeeding Southern Song Chinese Dynasty continued to fight for over a decade with Jin forces, eventually signing the Treaty of Shaoxing in 1141, calling for the cessation of all Song Chinese land north of the Huai River to the Jin and the execution of Song General Yue Fei in return for peace.
Jin Prince HÇŽilÃng again attacked the Southern Song Chinese in 1161. Meanwhile, two simultaneous rebellions erupted in Manchuria: one of Jurchen nobles, led by HÇŽilÃng's cousin, soon-to-be crowned WÃ¡nyÃ¡n YÅng and the other of Khitan Liao tribesmen. HÇŽilÃng had to withdraw Jin troops from southern China to quell the uprisings. The Jin were defeated in the Battle of Caishi and Battle of Tangdao. With a depleted military force, Prince HÇŽilÃng failed to make headway in his attempted invasion of the Southern Song Chinese. Finally he was assassinated by his own generals in December of 1161, due to his defeats. His son and heir was also assassinated in the capital. The Khitan Liao uprising was not suppressed until 1164; their horses were confiscated so that the rebels had to take up farming. Other Khitan and Xi Xia cavalry units were incorporated into the Jin army.
Starting from the early 13th century the Jin Dynasty began to feel the pressure of Mongol Conquest from the north. Genghis Khan first led the Mongols into Western Xi Xia territory in 1205. In 1211 about 50,000 Mongols on horses invaded the Jin Empire and began absorbing Khitan Liao and Jurchen rebels. The Jin army had a half million men with 150,000 cavalry but abandoned the â€œwestern capitalâ€ Datong. The next year the Mongols went north and looted the Jin â€œeastern capitalâ€, and in 1213 they besieged the â€œcentral capitalâ€. In 1214 the Jin made a humiliating treaty but retained the capital. That summer, Jin Emperor XuÄnzÅng abandoned the central capital and moved the government to the â€œsouthern capitalâ€ of Kaifeng, making it the official seat of Jin Dynasty power. In 1216 a war faction persuaded XuÄnzÅng to attack the Song Chinese, but in 1219 they were defeated at the same place by the Yangtze River, where Prince HÇŽilÃng had been defeated in 1161. Jin Emperor Ä€izÅng won a succession struggle against his brother and then quickly ended the war and went back to the capital. He made peace with the Tanguts, who had been allied with the Mongols. Genghis Khan died in 1227 while his armies were conquering the Western Xi Xia Dynasty. His son Ã–gedei Khan invaded the Jin Empire in 1232 with assistance from the Southern Song Chinese. The Jurchens tried to resist; but when Kaifeng was attacked, Ä€izÅng fled south. The Mongol Conquest continued and their forces looted the capital in 1233, and the next year Ä€izÅng committed suicide to avoid being captured, ending the Jin dynasty in 1234.
Jin Military Forces
Contemporary Chinese writers ascribed Jurchen success in overwhelming the Liao and Northern Song Chinese mainly to their cavalry. Already during Aguda's rebellion against the Liao, all Jurchen fighters were mounted. It was said that the Jurchen cavalry tactics were a carryover from their hunting skills. Jurchen horsemen were provided with heavy armor; on occasions, they would use a team of horses attached to each other with chains. As the Liao Empire fell apart and the Song Chinese retreated beyond the Yangtze, the army of the new Jin Dynasty absorbed many soldiers who formerly fought for the Liao or Song. The new Jin empire adopted many of the Song Chinese' weapons, including various machines for siege warfare and artillery. The Jin use of cannons, grenades, and even rockets to defend besieged Kaifeng against the Mongol Conquest in 1233 is considered the first ever battle in human history in which gunpowder was used effectively, even though it failed to prevent the eventual Jin defeat.
- The list has many mandatory troops in the Non-Core section. It is mandatory to have one or other set of Chinese infantry, but only from 1127. It is mandatory to have Zhongxiao jun from 1160.
- The Fortified camp is mandatory as well, but this "may" be corrected in a subsequent errata.
User-contributed links about this army:
- Jurchen Chin - Song Relations on Imperial China.com
- Kurchens vs the Koreans Korean History Project
- put the link text readers will see in here write some more detail about the link here
Put information on allied contingents here - including recommendations on which to use, and why.
- Paint schemes, insignia, shield designs? Put it here.
You are probably picking a combination of Song Chinese, Khitan Liao, Later Horse Nomad and Mongol Conquest troops for this army
You can see some of the figures in the Ancients Photo Gallery also on this site
- Essex Miniatures - Mongols and generic Eastern nomad cavalry
- Gladiator Miniatures by Fighting 15's (Gladiator Games) Asiatic Nomad range
- Old Glory Mongols?
- Magister Militum Tibetans?
- Museum Eastern / Persian Cavalry may work as well as Mongols
- Minifigs UK Must have something in their Chinese ranges?
- Irregular Minis - Song Chinese range
- Alan Touller Korean maybe?
- East Riding - Grumpys ranges Yi Koreans and Ming Chinese?
- Isarus (more former TTG figures) Mongols?
- Outpost Some later cavalry based chinese ranges
- Khurasan Many of their Eastern ranges will work
- Viking Forge Tang Chinese?
- Brial Hallâ€™s Hall of Ancient Warriors Chinese Nomad range
- Miniature Wars Mongols?
- Naismith & Roundway Naismith have Chinese Border Nomads, Song and Mongols.
Sample army lists for this army
Name of Army / Date
- Using asterisks inthe edit mode creates a bulleted list in the actual site
- This is a lot easier to do than easier than setting up tables
- For FoG I suggest listing your army in order or march
- with troop desctiptions on each line, for example
- 4 HF Armoured Average Drilled Impact Foot Swordsmen
- 8 LG Undrilled Unarmoured Poor Bowen
- Dont forget to include your Generals !!!
Include any notes you want here, including comments on how to use - or play against - the army.
Remember to leave a line before you copy the above section as a template for your own list