Indonesian and Malay

Historical Overview Section

The 10th century Arab account Ajayeb al-Hind (Marvels of India) gives an account of invasion in Africa, probably by Malay people of Srivijaya, in 945-946 CE. They arrived in the coast of Tanganyika and Mozambique with 1000 boats and attempted to take the citadel of Qanbaloh, though eventually failed. The reason of the attack is because that place had goods suitable for their country and for China, such as ivory, tortoise shells, panther skins, and ambergris, and also because they wanted black slaves from Bantu people (called Zeng or Zenj by Malay, Jenggi by Javanese) who were strong and make good slaves.
The Anjukladang stone steele commemorated the Javanese Medang successful effort to repel Srivijayan attack in 935.

In the late 10th century, animosity between the Sumatran Srivijaya and Javanese Medang kingdom escalated. The Anjukladang inscription, dated to 937, commemorated the Javanese Medang successful effort to repel Srivijayan attack. In 990 AD, King Dharmawangsa of Medang launched a naval invasion against Srivijaya, and unsuccessfully attempted to capture Palembang. Dharmawangsa's invasion led the Maharaja of Srivijaya, Sri Cudamani Warmadewa to seek protection from China. His diplomatic skills saw him securing Chinese support through appeasement, by building a Buddhist temple to honour the Chinese emperor. In 1006 AD, Srivijaya successfully repelled the Javanese invasion, and in retaliation and alarm, assisted Haji (king) Wurawari of Lwaram to revolt, destroying the Medang palace. With the death of Dharmawangsa and the fall of the Medang capital, Srivijaya collapsed the Medang kingdom.

In 1025 Rajendra Chola, the Chola king from Coromandel in South India, launched naval raids on ports of Srivijaya and conquered Kadaram (modern Kedah) from Srivijaya. Further battles with the Chola dynasty marked the decline of Srivijayan military might.

After defeating Srivijaya's successor, the Dharmasraya kingdom, in Sumatra on 1275, the kingdom of Singhasari in Java became the most powerful kingdom in the region. King Kertanegara launched the Pamalayu expedition against Sumatran states and conquered them. Having taken notice of these conquests, the Mongol Yuan dynasty of China demanded tribute to be sent to Kublai Khan's court by Java. Kertanegara responded by insulting and torturing Khan's envoy, and Kublai Khan sent an armada of 1000 ships in retaliation.

Meanwhile, Jayakatwang, the ruler of the Gelang-Gelang (Kediri) kingdom, revolted against Kertanegara, killing him and destroying the Singhasari kingdom. Raden Wijaya, the son in law of Kertanegara, led Mongol forces during the Mongol invasion of Java to Jayakatwang to oust him. Raden Wijaya then turned back against Mongol forces, and drove them out to the sea. Raden Wijaya then established the Majapahit kingdom in 1293.

Gunpowder technology entered Java during the Mongol invasion. During the following years, Majapahit army have begun producing breech-loading cannon known as cetbang. Cetbang can be mounted as fixed or swivel gun, small sized cetbang can be easily installed on small vessels. This gun is used as an anti-personnel weapon, not anti-ship. In this age, even to the 17th century, the Nusantaran soldiers fought on a platform called Balai and perform boarding actions. Loaded with scattershot and fired at close range, the cetbang is very effective at this type of fighting.

Majapahit would be plagued by regional rebellions, such as the rebellions of Sadeng and Keta, rebellion of Ranggalawe, and Nambi. After that, under the able and aggressive leader Gajah Mada, Majapahit spread its influence beyond Java and Sumatra, to the rest of the Nusantaran archipelago.

In 1350 Majapahit launched its largest military expedition, the invasion of Pasai, with 400 large jong and innumerable smaller vessels. The second largest military expedition, invasion of Singapura in 1398, Majapahit deployed 300 jong with no less than 200,000 men. During the Majapahit conquest, small breech-loading swivel gun called cetbang is used in naval warfare, against more traditional boarding tactics employed by other kingdom of the archipelago.

During the reign of Hayam Wuruk, Majapahit was involved in a battle against the royal family of Sunda Kingdom in the Battle of Bubat. However, the Paregreg war of 1404 to 1406 drained the coffers of the Majapahit kingdom, and led to its decline in the following years

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261 Indonesian (Robinson - Britcon 2019)
2 Elephants
5 Warrrior Foot
2 Bowmen
2 LF Javelin
2 Elephants
5 Warriors
2 LF Javelins
2 LH Javelins
3 Bowmen

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