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Koryo Korean

Historical Overview Section

Koryo was a Korean kingdom ruled by a dynasty of the same name from 935 to 1392. During this period Korea began to form a distinctively Korean cultural tradition. The dynasty was formed by Gen. Wang Kon of Later Koguryo, who defeated the Three Kingdoms Koreans of the Silla and of Later Paekche to create a unified Korean peninsula in 936. In the late 10th century, a centralized bureaucratic system replaced the old aristocratic tribal system. The kingdom saw a flowering of the arts, particularly ceramics (Koryo celadon), and Buddhism and Confucianism were influential.

During the tenth century, the Khitan Liao tried to establish relations with Goryeo at least on two occasions. In 942, the Liao ruler Taizu sent an embassy with a gift of 50 camels to Goryeo, but Taejo refused them, banishing the envoys and starving the camels to death. In 951, when the state of Huju (a Late Tang to Five Dynasties? state) was established in China, Goryeo made a turn to that side and 9 years later, shifted to the Song Chinese sphere of influence. Relations with the Song Chinese were close, with many embassies being exchanged between Goryeo and Song, but relations would be interrupted by the rise of the Khitan Liao and Jin dynasties. After about 30 years of peace, the Khitan Liao invaded Goryeo. It failed and after two other failed attempts, a state of peace was established in the Far East. For around 100 years, the Far East was relatively peaceful and Munjong strengthened the Liao-Song-Goryeo line. In 1102, the Jin Dynasty threatened and another crisis emerged. But after Yejong agreed to a tributary relationship, peace was maintained and Jin never actually did invade Goryeo. Tension continued through the 12th century and into the 13th century, when the Mongol invasions started.

In 1231, a Mongol Conquest army under Ögedei Khan invaded Goryeo, as part of a general campaign to conquer China. The royal court moved to Ganghwa Island in the Bay of Gyeonggi, in 1232. The military ruler of the time, Choe U insisted on fighting back. Goryeo resisted for about 30 years but finally sued for peace in 1259. Meanwhile, the Mongols began a campaign from 1231 to 1259 that ravaged parts of Gyeongsang and Jeolla provinces. There were six major campaigns: 1231, 1232, 1235, 1238, 1247, 1253; between 1253 and 1258, the Mongols under Jalairtai launched four devastating invasions in the final successful campaign against Korea, at tremendous cost to civilian lives throughout the Korean peninsula, ultimately resulting in Korea becoming a tributary of the Mongol Yuan Chinese? Dynasty.

Civilian resistance was strong, and the Imperial Court at Ganghwa attempted to strengthen its fortress. Korea won several victories but the Korean military could not withstand the waves of invasions. In March 1258, the dictator Choe U was assassinated by Kim Jun. Thus, dictatorship by his military group was ended, and the scholars who had insisted on peace with Mongolia gained power. Eventually, the scholars sent an envoy to the Mongols, and a peace treaty was contracted between the Mongol Empire and Goryeo. Some military officials who refused to surrender formed the Sambyeolcho Rebellion and resisted in the islands off the southern shore of the Korean
After a series of battles, Goryeo capitulated to the Mongols, and became a vassal of the Yuan Chinese? Dynasty for approximately 80 years. In 1392 Yi Song-gye overthrew the shaky dynasty and founded the Choson dynasty.

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200 Points Used in Pamplona 2019

  • 2 wagons (XBow)
  • 1 heavy Artillery
  • 1 HI HW
  • Ordinary General

==

  • 2 Elite Cataphracts
  • 2 Mixed Spear/XBow
  • 1 Handgunner
  • 1 HC Impact
  • 1 Guardsman Elite MF HW
  • 1 Crossbowman
  • Brilliant General

==

  • 1 LH Bow
  • 1 HC Impact
  • 3 MC Impact mediocre
  • 2 Guards HC Impact Elite
  • 1 HC Bow Jurchen
  • Brilliant general


Not used in pamplona 2019

  • 1 MC Impact mediocre
  • 1 HC Bow Jurchen
  • 2 Mixed Spear/XBow
  • 1 LH Bow
  • 1 HC Impact

Brilliant General
==

  • 2 Guards H Impact Elite
  • 1 Mixed Spear/XBow
  • 3 HI HW
  • 1 Handgunner
  • 1 HI Spear

Competent Included
==

  • 2 Guards HC Impact Elite
  • 1 LH Bow
  • 2 MC Impact mediocre
  • 1 HC Bow Jurchen

Competent

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